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You May Have Fallen Arches?

Overview

Flat Foot

Flat feet can lead to extreme stress or inflammation of the plantar fascia, possibly causing severe discomfort and leading to other foot problems. Without properly supported arches, simple movement can pull your body out of alignment and cause stress, strain and fatigue to your lower body.

Causes

Genetic predisposition. Faulty foot mechanics, e.g. excessive pronation. Abnormal bony architecture. Laxity of ligaments. Neuro-muscular disease. Trauma to the leg muscles or major tendons. Inflammatory diseases of the joints e.g. Rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical procedures on the leg and ankle. Limb length inequality. Tight Achilles tendon.

Symptoms

Not everyone who has flat feet experiences symptoms. Others, however, feel persistent pain in their feet and wearing shoes can prove additionally painful. Others only feel symptoms when they walk more than normal, go jogging or participate in a sport that involves running or kicking.

Diagnosis

Podiatrists are trained in expertly assessing flat feet and identifying different risk factors and the causes for it. Initial assessment will begin with a detailed history attempting to find out if any underlying illness has resulted in this. A detailed clinical examination normally follows. The patient may be asked to perform certain movements such as walking or standing on their toes to assess the function of the foot. Footwear will also be analysed to see if there has been excessive wear or if they are contributing to the pronation of the foot. To assess the structure of the foot further, the podiatrist may perform certain x-rays to get a detailed idea of the way the bones are arranged and how the muscle tissues may be affecting them. It also helps assess any potential birth defects in a bit more detail.

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Non Surgical Treatment

If you have flat feet (pes planus) it does not mean you will have problems or pain. Flat feet are a common condition. Flat feet are defined as an abnormal lowering of the medial longitudinal arch. There is often a hereditary component to the development of flat feet. Flat feet are more common in certain ethnic groups. Flat feet usually occurs equally in both feet and become apparent at an early age. Flat feet can initially be asymptomatic, but can become progressively symptomatic with age. Some flat feet never become bothersome. The medial arch is unstable in flexible flatfoot. The foot can bend as the heel lifts of the ground. This creates stress on the surrounding soft-tissues and joints creating tired, sore arches. The instability of the foot can create abnormal stress that flows up the leg which results in pain in the legs, knees, hips and lower back. Patients with flat feet often present to the chiropodist/podiatrist with problems that are indirectly caused by their foot structure.

Surgical Treatment

Acquired Flat Foot

This is rare and usually only offered if patients have significant abnormalities in their bones or muscles. Treatments include joint fusion, reshaping the bones in the foot, and occasionally moving around tendons in the foot to help balance out the stresses (called tendon transfer). Flat feet and fallen arches are common conditions that are in most cases asymptomatic. However, in patients who do have symptoms, treatments are available that can help reduce pain and promote efficient movement. Orthotic devices are well recognised as an excellent treatment and podiatrists can offer these different treatment modalities as individualised treatments for patients.